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托福阅读背景知识:鲸类的起源

2015-04-28 10:42 三立在线 lvshuang

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摘要:备考托福阅读需要大量的托福阅读知识,很多时候大家都不知道到哪里去找这些知识,所以今天小编为了方便大家为大家整理出托福阅读背景知识:鲸类的起源,我们来学习一下。

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  托福阅读考试经常会考动植物、海洋生物相关的话题,这就需要我们掌握尽可能多的托福阅读背景知识,今天为大家分享的是关于鲸类起源的介绍,希望对大家有帮助。

  我们这期的题目是“鲸类的起源”,那么题目中的核心词Cetacean,和文章中一个很长的单词Basilosaurus的含义是什么呢?让我们先来看看维基百科的解释:

  Cetacean n. 鲸目

  包含了大约八十种大型的有胎盘海洋哺乳动物,包括鲸鱼﹑海豚和鼠海豚。鲸目的现存物种可分为两个亚目:须鲸和齿鲸。 根据化石相关资料,鲸鱼和陆生哺乳动物有共同的祖先,是五千万年前的海洋动物。远古鲸鱼拥有四肢及尾巴,与爬行哺乳类无异。

  Basilosaurus n. 龙王鲸

  龙王鲸,又名械齿鲸,已经绝种的古代海洋哺乳动物,现代鲸鱼的近亲,是鲸目中的一个属,生存于3900万至3400万年前的始新世晚期。 龙王鲸刚开始被误认为是巨大的海洋爬虫类的化石,所以被命名为帝王蜥蜴。

  下面送上译文和参考答案,这三道题你答对了吗?

  The Origins of Cetaceans

  【Paragraph 4】Another major discovery was made in Egypt in 1989. Several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethys Sea and nowexposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hind leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foot-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.

  鲸类的起源

  1989年,人们在埃及有了另一个重大发现。人们在古地中海残留的沉积物中,发现了另一类早期鲸鱼Basilosaurus的一些骨骸,这些骨骸如今暴露在撒哈拉大沙漠上。Basilosaurus生活在大约4000万年前,比Pakicetus鲸鱼晚了1200万年。尽管发现的这些骨骼并不完整,但这是专家们第一次在原始动物身上发现完整的后肢,它有三个小脚趾作为的足部特征。可这些后肢还太小,远无法支撑50英尺长的Basilosaurus在陆地行走。因此,Basilosaurus必定是完全水生的鲸鱼,它们的后肢已经不起任何作用,或者说已经退化。

  6. The word “exposed”in the passage is closest in meaning to _______.

  A. explained

  B. visible

  C. identified

  D. located

  Correct Answer: B

  This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is exposed. It is highlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice B, "visible." Exposed means "uncovered." A skeleton that is uncovered can be seen. Visible means "can be seen."

  7. The hind leg of Basilosaurus was a significant find because it showed that Basilosaurus _______.

  A. lived later than Ambulocetus natans

  B. lived at the same time as Pakicetus

  C. was able to swim well

  D. could not have walked on land

  Correct Answer: D

  This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information that can be found in the passage. Choice D is the best answer because it is the only detail about the skeleton of Basilosaurus mentioned in paragraph 4, meaning that it is significant. Choice A is true, but it is not discussed in the detail that choice D is, and does not represent the significance of the discovery. Choice C is not mentioned, and choice B is not mentioned.

  关于鲸类起源的托福阅读背景知识介绍以及可能考得题型就为大家介绍这么多,如果你还需要更多类似的背景材料,可以点击下面的立即下载按钮进入我们的三立在线资料库查询下载。

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