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新托福独立写作采分点有哪些

2015-05-26 16:38 三立在线 lvshuang

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摘要:托福独立写作想要取得高分,首先要切合采分点才可以,托福独立写作采分点在ETS官方的OG就有介绍,另外根据历年经验总结,还有许多采分点是考生们需要注意的,让我们一起来看一下。

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  新托福独立写作的采分点有很多,参照OG我们会有如下几点总结:文章切题(addresses the topic),逻辑衔接(unity, progression, and coherence),语言错误较少(appropriate word choice and minor errors),论证充分(explanations,exemplifications and details),结构清楚(well organized & well developed)。如果说前面几项要求比较偏重于考生的英语基本功的考察,那么今天我们来分析一下最后一项,也是比较容易把分数收入囊中的一个得分点:行文结构。

  通过对过去一年新托福独立写作题目的分析,不难发现题目中的主流题型仍然是Do you agree or disagree with the following statement, 其中又细化为“一般称述”、“含有绝对词”和“比较级”三类,以下各举一例供大家参考。第一类例如2014年3月22日Young school children should berequired to study art and music in addition to math language science andhistory. 第二类例如2014年4月19日 For any business to be successful, it must spend a lot of moneyon advertising. 第三类例如2014年3月16日It is easier to bewell-educated today than it is in the past.

  以上这三类出题方式从本质上来说仍然是辩证分析类题目,所以行文结构可以采取“一边倒”或者“让步式”的写法。其中“一边倒”的写法为广大考生所熟悉,主要是因为考生认为“一边倒”的文章结构操作起来比较容易,对于辩证逻辑的要求较低。但是值得注意的是,如果考生选择了一边倒的写法,在全文五段式的基础上主体段就必须有切入视角区分度比较大的三个分论点进行支撑。这么做一方面是基于字数破300争取350-400的考虑,另一方面也是要体现出看问题角度的多样性。事实证明如果主体段只写两个分论点,虽然字数达到考试要求,但是分数仍然不会很高,很大程度上是由于论证角度的局限性,给考官提供的样本量不足,无法充分展示考生的多角度看问题的能力。当然,笔者更建议对Agree or Disagree类型的题目采取让步式的写法,因为这种写法更有利于体现出考生的辩证思考能力。因为事物都是一体两面的,如果结论可以是倾向式的赞成和反对会显得更加客观。当然在论证的时候也要尤其注意,在三个分论点中可以有两个是同方向的,另一个论点应该是在反方向论证的基础上在内部进行打击、否定和反驳。避免出现两好加一坏等于全盘都是好的荒唐结论。

  下面来看一个真题演练:

  Do you agreeor disagree with the following statement: Museum entry should be free.

  这道题如果写成“一边倒”的形式,无论是支持还是反对,都至少应该从社会公平、文化传播、经济角度、博物馆自身还有参观者体验度等这些角度中选择三个具有区分度的来写,避免从单一的参观者的角度去写三段。

  然而这道题也完全可以采取“让步式”的写法,可以先说两个支持免费的点,比如有利于社会公平和文化传播,但是第三个点就应该是承认门票收入可以用来保障博物馆的日常运营和维护这一优点,并且在该段落内部反驳其实政府应该给予博物馆更多的财政支持,而并非让参观者来承担这笔费用,甚至还可以稍微提及纳税人的权利这一点来增加说服力。

  值得注意的是除了主流的出题形式之外,还有一部分题目会涉及选择倾向性的考察,常见形式有二选一和三选一两种。比如2014年3月15日Which is the best way forstudents to make friends: joining a sports team, participating in communityactivities or traveling? 相较之下,这种题目的行文结构反而变得比较固定,除去开头结尾两段之外,中间的主体三段式论证主要是一个段落重点突破一个选项,用一段话论证哪一个被选择,另外两段分述剩下两个点为什么被舍弃即可。当然,也可以通过三个切入点,分别分析三个选项的利弊。但是很明显前者操作的难度较低,比较适合绝大多数的考生使用。

  下面来看一个真题演练:

  During theeconomic crisis, local governments often reduce the money they spend in someareas. In your opinion, if a local government is facing economic problems,which of the following areas should it spend less money on? Library, publictransportation and police.

  可能很多考生会觉得自己并非是经济学专业的学生,遇到类似于“经济危机”这样的话题会无从下笔,其实只要能够结合日常生活经验进行一定的逻辑推理,还是可以应付绝大数问题的。比如选择削减对于图书馆的财政支出,理由可以是它的可替代性较高,比如网络等新兴媒介。而公共交通和警备力量不能被削减是因为在经济危机时这两方面临着更大的压力,比如失业导致更多人利用公共交通以及社会不稳定因素的增加,所以不能削减在这两方面的财政支持。

  综上所述,了解了新托福独立写作的常见出题形式,并且能够结合具体问题进行具体的多角度的分析,文章结构很容易在拿到题目的1-2分钟内确定好,从而在最短的时间内完成题目要求并且抓住结构的采分点。

  ing �oe�z�|to save our time andmakes our life more convenient. It is not uncommon phenomenon thatpeople are waiting for the bus or subway in a long queue and not a few peopleare late for work or class due to the traffic jam. So, if we can choose to workand study at home, it is not necessary for us to take hours on the way tocompanies and schools. Besides, working and studying at home gives us a moreflexible timetable. We do not have to wake up at 6 o’clock in the morning toarrive in the company on time. We are able to decide when we start and stop thework, based on our physical and psychological conditions. The same thing occursto study as well. We will not see any students falling asleep in the class anymore. Therefore, our working and studying efficiency will be highly improved.

  What’s more, our family connection will be enhanced by working andstudying at home. Resulting from the heavy social and livingpressure, a lot of parents have to leave their children alone at home and go towork, which makes them spend little time with their children. That is thereason why many parents do not understand their kids very well. If thoseparents can work at home, they can handle their work and spend more time withtheir children at the same time. By doing this, parents can know more abouttheir children and exchange emotions and ideas with each other. Then, distanceamong family members will be shortened and the family relationship could bestrengthened.

  On the other hand, working and studying at home blames for blocking people’schannel to communicate with others. It may possible lead people tofeel isolated and lonely. However, I think we can avoid such consequence withsuitable approaches. One solution to it is that people can actively take partin the party held by their classmates or colleagues. As another key, people canmake a call to their friends to have a dinner and share each others’experiences as well.

  新托福独立写作采分点的介绍就跟大家聊这么多了,大家如果需要更多的托福写作素材或者练习题可以随时点击下面的提示链接,免费获取我们为大家准备的专项练习题。

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