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托福听力背景知识及词汇:艺术史

2015-05-29 10:32 三立在线 lvshuang

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摘要:艺术史相关的段子在托福听力中经常出现,因此考生在备考时需要重点掌握,尤其是词汇和背景知识,为此我们特别为大家分享艺术类的的托福听力词汇和背景知识供大家参考。

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  背景知识点:

  艺术史文章的考点:艺术时期的最大特点(hallmark/feature/characteristic) + 代表人物(person/representative) +代表作品 (work) + 背景和影响 (background + effect) + 鼎盛时期的发展情况(peak/summit) + 人生经历 (autobiography/personal experience)

  相关历史阶段:

  中世纪Medieval Time/Middle Ages ——“黑暗时代”Dark Ages教会统治严格,宗教控制了教育文化,思想传播。Collapse of the Western Roman Empire, time of ignorance and superstition, place the word of religious authorities over personal experience and rational activity, the Earth was flat, misconception

  文艺复兴Renaissance —— Bridge between the Middle Ages and Modern history欧洲在科学技术、经济文化等各方面都发生了极大的改变,注重人性,对解放人们思想,发展文化与科学,起了巨大历史作用- ideal of humanism, , secular, cultural movement in Italy, spread to the rest of Europe, encompass innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literature, techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting, widespread educational reform, development of the conventions of diplomacy, upheaval, represent a cultural rebirth, highly realistic linear perspective, human anatomy, polymaths达芬奇Leonardo da Vinci,米开朗其罗Michelangelo,伽利略Galileo- father of modern science, discovery of the New World, Christopher Columbus

  启蒙运动Age of Enlightenment/Age of Reason —— 启蒙运动是继文艺复兴运动后欧洲产生的第二个思想解放运动,覆盖了各个知识领域,如自然科学、哲学、伦理学moral philosophy、政治学、经济学、历史学、文学、教育学等等- A period in Western intellectual, centered in France, emphasize reason, analysis, individualism, traditional lines of authority, philosophy, local thinker, Masonic lodge, Catholic Church, reform society with toleration, science, and skepticism

  相关艺术风格:

  Classicalism 古典主义——在文艺理论和创作实践上以古希腊、罗马文学为典范,而被称为“古典主义”- a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, classicists see to emulate, formal and restrained, a recurrent tendency, renewal of classical forms, motifs and subjects, neoclassicism

  Impressionism 印象主义——印象主义最明显的特点是力图客观地描绘视觉现实中的瞬息片刻,主要是表现光和色的关系- harsh opposition from the conventional art community, relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of the light in its changing qualities, ordinary subject matter, movement is a crucial element, 代表画家莫奈Claude Monet

  Romanticism 浪漫主义 (也可以做浪漫主义时代,浪漫主义在反映客观现实上侧重从主观内心世界出发,抒发对理想世界的热烈追求,常用夸张的手法来塑造形象-Romantic era/Romantic period) An artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe, partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, wider landscape painting, seascape, contemporary setting

  Realism现实主义—— 般来说凡是在形象中能最充分地表现现实生活的典型特征的,都叫做现实主义作品,也叫做naturalism, attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements, prevalent in the arts at many periods, avoidance of stylization, accurate depiction of lifeforms

  TPO部分对应参考讲座(Art History类TPO19-L4/TPO21-L4)

  Alice Neel爱丽丝·尼尔

  experience difficulties 经历苦难

  as an artist 作为艺术家

  portraits 肖像

  solo exhibition 个人展

  photography 摄影、摄影术

  prestigious 有名的

  art form 艺术形式

  acceptance 接受、接纳

  portray people 描绘人物

  combine 结合

  some elements of realism 现实主义元素

  accurate 精确的

  expressionism 表现主义

  emotion 情绪

  be distorted or exaggerated 被扭曲或夸大

  in some way 某种程度上

  contradiction 矛盾、反驳

  bold color 亮色

  brighter than it really is 比实际颜色更亮

  pay special attention to faces 对面部格外关注

  elongated 瘦长的

  stretchy figures 伸长的题型

  techniques 技巧、手法

  reflect reality 反映现实

  go beyond 超出、超越

  reveal 显示、揭示

  subjects’ character or personality 主体的性格

  distinctive 有特色的、与众不同

  critic 评论家

  transform the genre 改变流派

  formal depiction 正式的描述

  president 总统

  ancestor 祖先

  abstract art 抽象艺术

  dominate the art scene 在艺术领域占主导地位

  representations of people 人物表现法

  Cecilia塞西莉亚

  convey 传达

  artists’ personal vision 艺术家个人视觉

  feeling 感受

  insight洞悉

  Theodore Roosevelt 西欧多尔罗斯福

  prestige 声望

  first full-time female instructor 第一位女性指导师

  Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts

  宾夕法尼亚美术学院

  National Academy of Design 国家设计学院

  institutions 机构

  expressive 有表现力的

  contemplative 冥想的

  strike me 让我震撼

  contrasting colors 对比色彩

  vague 模糊的

  real context 真正的环境

 托福听力背景

  definite surroundings 确定的环境

  clear 清晰的

  well-defined 轮廓清晰的

  a sense of isolation 孤立感

  impression 印象、效果

  以上就是小编为大家整理的托福听力背景知识及词汇:艺术史相关内容,希望对你的备考有所帮助,另外我们还为大家准备了更多的托福听力相关材料和练习题,大家只要点击下面的下载链接就可以免费获取了。

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