您的位置:小马过河 > 资料下载 > 托福下载 > 托福阅读下载 > 托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集
400-0123-267

托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集

2015-11-12 17:29 小马过河 lvshuang

分享到:0

摘要:今天小编为大家准备的资料是热搜资料托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集,相信大家都有所略闻,这是份非常有用的资料,很多考生都在积极的使用,希望大家可以仔细看看哦。

  很多考生都对我们的开场托福阅读都不知道该如何进行复习,所以今天小编给大家推荐这份托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集,我们一起来看看精彩内容。

  Early Cinema

  The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison's peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight).

  These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each). He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

  Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison's former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.

  With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time. But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.

  Although early exhibitors regularly accompanied movies with live acts, the substance of the movies themselves is mass-produced, prerecorded material that can easily be reproduced by theaters with little or no active participation by the exhibitor. Even though early exhibitors shaped their film programs by mixing films and other entertainments together in whichever way they thought would be most attractive to audiences or by accompanying them with lectures, their creative control remained limited. What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies; the lifelike reproduction of the commonplace motion of trains, of waves striking the shore, and of people walking in the street; and the magic made possible by trick photography and the manipulation of the camera.

  With the advent of projection, the viewer's relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public—an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet.

  托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集文件截图:

托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集

  以上就是本资料托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word版合集的部分精彩内容,大家要是有需要可以点击按钮进行免费的下载,希望大家经过看本资料对大家的备考有帮助。

咨询详情 名师解答

相关推荐:

托福综合下载

吉林托福考点哪个好

海洋大学托福考点地点评价



相关字搜索:托福阅读真题TPO,托福阅读真题TPO1-34 word   
在线咨询


Copyright ©2004-2015 www.xiaoma.com All Rights Resserved 小马过河版权所有

全国保分电话:400-0123-267  邮箱:info@xiaoma.com

北京校区  中关村:北京市海淀区中关村海淀北一街2号鸿城拓展大厦8层

          国  贸:北京朝阳区永安里华彬大厦8层

上海校区  上海市黄浦区南京西路388号仙乐斯广场16层

关于我们 - 联系我们 - 欢迎合作 - 小马招聘 - 网站地图

京ICP备14009560号-3

京公网安备 11010802021370号