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托福阅读段落太长怎么办

2018-04-25 21:47 小马过河 朱慜

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摘要:托福阅读段落太长怎么办,从TPO40-48以及近期的考试来看,越来越多的文章呈现出段落变少的特点。原来大多数的托福阅读文章都有5-6个段落,而现在很多文章都只有3-4个段落了,这也就意味着这类文章单个段落变长了,做题的时候我们需要在更长的段落中找答案,定位的难度增加了。

  从TPO40-48以及近期的考试来看,越来越多的文章呈现出段落变少的特点。原来大多数的托福阅读文章都有5-6个段落,而现在很多文章都只有3-4个段落了,这也就意味着这类文章单个段落变长了,做题的时候我们需要在更长的段落中找答案,定位的难度增加了。

  因此,我们在考前一定要训练自己适应阅读长段落,既要培养耐心阅读这种长度的段落,也要学会如何快速在长段落中定位答案。事实上,长段落并没有那么可怕,它只是看起来比较长而已,这些段落的内部结构往往层次分明。只要经过练习,我们同样能很快速地拆分段落。一个非常有用的线索就是语言上的结构信号词,比如also, other, another, alternative 等等。

  举个例子

  以TPO42-2 Explaining Dinosaur Extinction为例,这篇文章只有3个段落,首段就非常长,让我们一起看一看:

  Dinosaurs rapidly became extinct about 65 million years ago as part of a mass extinction known as the K-T event, because it is associated with a geological signature known as the K-T boundary, usually a thin band of sedimentation found in various parts of the world (K is thetraditional abbreviation for the Cretaceous, derived from the German name Kreidezeit).Many explanations have been proposed for why dinosaurs became extinct. For example, some have blamed dinosaur extinction on the development of flowering plants, which were supposedly more difficult to digest and could have caused constipation or indigestion—except that flowering plants first evolved in the Early Cretaceous, about 60 million years before the dinosaurs died out. In fact, several scientists have suggested that the duckbill dinosaurs and horned dinosaurs, with their complex battery of grinding teeth, evolved to exploit this new resource of rapidly growing flowering plants. Others have blamed extinction on competition from the mammals, which allegedly ate all the dinosaur eggs—except that mammals and dinosaurs appeared at the same time in the Late Triassic, about 190 million years ago, and there is no reason to believe that mammals suddenly acquired a taste for dinosaur eggs after 120 million years of coexistence. Some explanations (such as the one stating that dinosaurs all died of diseases) fail because there is no way to scientifically test them, and they cannot move beyond the realm of speculation and guesswork.

  这个段落虽然长,但是结构层次非常清晰:

  开头先介绍了一下事件的背景——恐龙灭绝,并对相关概念K-T event, K-T boundary进行了解释。

  之后引出对该事件的解释“Many explanations have been proposed for why dinosaurs became extinct”. 再一一介绍了3种解释(文中标红的部分)并分别进行了反驳(文中标蓝的部分):

  For example, some have blamed dinosaur extinction on the development of flowering plants

  Others have blamed extinction on competition from the mammals

  Some explanations (such as the one stating that dinosaurs all died of diseases)…

  现在再来看看这一段的题目,只要我们利用好for example,others,some explanations这些结构信号词将这个长段落进行层次划分,是不是可以非常快地回文章中定位找答案了呢?先自己试一试,再在文末校对答案哦。

  1. In paragraph 1, why does the author include a discussion of when flowering plants evolved?

  A. To help explain why some scientists believe that the development of flowering plants led to dinosaur extinction

  B. To cast doubt on the theory that the development of flowering plants caused dinosaurs to become extinct

  C. To suggest that dinosaurs were able to survive for as long as they did because of the availability of flowering plants

  D. To emphasize that duckbill dinosaurs and horned dinosaurs were the first dinosaurs to become extinct

  2. The word “allegedly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. inevitably

  B. gradually

  C. supposedly

  D. increasingly

  3. According to paragraph 1 the extinction of the dinosaurs is unlikely to have been the result of competition from mammals because

  A. mammals would not have been capable of eating dinosaur eggs

  B. mammals did not appear in any significant numbers until after the Late Triassic

  C. mammals and dinosaurs did not, in fact, compete for any of the same resources

  D. mammals and dinosaurs lived together for roughly 120 million years before the extinction

  答案:

  1. B 根据题目中的“flowering plants evolved”定位。原文“In fact, several scientists have suggested that the duckbill dinosaurs and horned dinosaurs, with their complex battery of grinding teeth, evolved to exploit this new resource of rapidly growing flowering plants”反驳了第1个解释“the development of flowering plants, which were supposedly more difficult to digest and could have caused constipation or indigestion”

  2. C allegedly 意为据称,同根词allege即宣称(但还未被证实),因此选C。如果不认识这个单词的话,可以根据语境中各种否定、怀疑的情感态度来选择C选项

  3. D 根据题目中的“competition from mammals”定位。原文“there is no reason to believe that mammals suddenly acquired a taste for dinosaur eggs after 120 million years of coexistence”

  小马现在有专门针对托福阅读提升的网络直播课,有兴趣的同学们入群进行了解,最后,希望大家可以在托福考试中取得阅读高分。



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