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托福阅读真题_核心语法长难句及翻译

2018-11-26 17:38 小马过河 admin

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摘要:1.For centuries European artisans had operated in small, autonomous handicraft businesses, but by the sixteenth century an evolving economic system moving toward modern capitalism, with its free-market pricing, new organization of production, investments, and so on had started to erode their stable and relatively prosperous position. 数世纪以来,工匠们经营者小规模、自治的手工作坊,但到了十六世纪,一个向价格市场

1.For centuries European artisans had operated in small, autonomous handicraft businesses,

but by the sixteenth century an evolving economic system moving toward modern capitalism, with its free-market pricing, new organization of production, investments, and so on had started to erode their stable and relatively prosperous position.
数世纪以来,工匠们经营者小规模、自治的手工作坊,但到了十六世纪,一个向价格市场调
节机制、新的生产组织形式、出现投资行为不断演进的的现代资本主义经济系统,开始侵蚀
工匠们原来稳固、富裕的社会地位。
2.For example, in iron production, such specialized equipment as blast furnaces, tilt hammers,
wire-drawing machines, and stamping, rolling, and slitting mills became more familiar
components of the industry.
例如,在钢铁的生产领域,这种专业的生产设备(例如熔炉、斜角锤、制线机和印章、打卷
及切割机)成为了产业中人们所熟悉的设备。
3.Whereas in 1583 an Antwerp silk weaver paid 12 guilders for a loom (and made small payments
over many years to pay off the debt for purchasing the loom), every six weeks he or she had to
lay out 24 guilders for the 2 pounds of raw silk required to make a piece of cloth.
在 1583 年,一名安特卫普的丝织业者向 12 个公会成员付款购买了一台制丝机(并在其后数
年里支付小额费用来还清买机器的贷款),每六周他/她必须解雇 24 名公会成员来支付能够
用于织出一块丝绸所需要的 2 磅生丝原材料。
4.As silk cultivation waned around the Spanish cities of Cordoba and Toledo, weavers in these
cities were forced to become employees of merchants who put out raw silk from Valencia and
Murcia provinces.
随着制丝业在西班牙 C 和 T 等城市的萧条,这些城市的纺织业者们被迫变成了从 V 和 M 省
生产生丝原材料的商人们的雇员。
5.In the Dutch Republic, merchants who imported unprocessed salt from France, Portugal, and
Spain gained control of the salt-refining industry once exploitation of local salt marshes was
halted for fear that dikes (which held back the sea from the low-lying Dutch land) would be
undermined.
在荷兰共和国,因担心堤坝(这些堤坝被用于保护低地势的荷兰不被海水淹没)受到破坏,
本地的盐田被中止开采,从法国、葡萄牙和西班牙等地进口生盐的商人们控制了生盐提纯产
业。
6.Periodic downturns, when food prices shot up and demand for manufactures fell off, drove
them further into debt or even into bankruptcy, from which they might emerge only by agreeing
to sell their products exclusively to merchants or fellow artisans who extended them loans.
当食品价格高涨、制成品需求下降时,周期性的萧条促使他们进一步陷入债务泥潭甚至破产,
因此他们被迫同意只向商人们或同行工匠们销售产品,以向他们寻求延缓债务偿还。
But infectious disease may not have had serious effects on large numbers of people or many
different populations, since diseases would have had little chance of being passed on to many
other humans.
但是传染病并不会严重影响大规模的人群或不同的群体,因为疾病很难有机会去向其他多人
传播。
Irrigation in some areas provided breeding places for mosquitoes, increasing the incidence of
malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.
某些地区的灌溉系统成为了蚊子的繁衍地,从而促进了疟疾和其他由蚊子传播的疾病的发病
率。
In addition, agriculture also led to a narrowing of food sources, as compared to the varied diets of hunters and gatherers.
此外,与打猎和采集相比,农业导致了食物来源范围的缩减。
Trade between settled communities helped spread diseases over large geographic areas, as in the case of the Black Death in Europe.
不同定居社群之间的贸易促进了疾病在更大范围内传播,例如欧洲的黑死病。
With modern medical science providing immunizations and antibiotics and with better public
health measures and improved nutrition, many infectious diseases were brought under control,
or even eliminated.
伴随着现代医学科技提供的免疫手段和抗生素、公共卫生水平的提升及营养的改善,许多传
染病已经被控制甚至是消灭了。
As people and their products become more mobile, and as our populations spread into
previously little-inhabited areas, cutting down forests and otherwise altering ecological
conditions, we contact other species that may carry diseases to which they are immune but that
prove deadly to us.
随着人类及其产品越来越广泛的传播、人类定居到了此前几乎无人的地区和林地的砍伐等其
他改变地质条件的行为,我们同其他携带疾病的生物产生了接触,这些疾病对于生物自身是
免疫的,而对于人类来说却是致命的。
Compared to the Sun, whose composition is representative of the raw materials from which
Earth and other planets in our solar system formed, Earth contains less of some volatile elements,such as nitrogen, argon, hydrogen, and helium.
太阳的成分表明了太阳系形成时地球及其他星球的成分,与太阳相比,地球失去了一些活性
元素,例如氮气、氩气、氢气和氦气。
Almost all of the free oxygen now in the atmosphere originated through photosynthesis, the
process whereby plants use light energy to induce carbon dioxide to react with water, producing
carbohydrates and oxygen.
几乎现今大气中所有的自由氧气都来源于光合作用,其是植物利用太阳能来将二氧化碳与水
反应,以生成碳水化合物和氧气的反应。
Because ocean water is in constant contact with the atmosphere, and the two systems function
together in a state of dynamic equilibrium, the transition from an oxygen-poor to an oxygen-rich
atmosphere also must have occurred during this period.
因为海水持续地与大气相接处,并且这两个系统相互作用行程动态平衡,大气从缺氧到富氧
也一定发生在这一时期。
The main chemical constituent of volcanic gases (as much as 97 percent of volume) is water

vapor,with varying amounts of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and other gases.
火山气体地化学成分(及其多达 97%的含量)是水蒸气,并包含了数量不等的氮气、二氧化
碳和其他气体。

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